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Research and Publications


The Great Reversal: Prospects, Risks, and Policies in International Development Association Countries

The Great Reversal: Prospects, Risks, and Policies in International Development Association Countries

The 75 economies eligible for low-interest loans and grants from the World Banks International Development Association (IDA) had made notable progress against some important development objectives over the first two decades of this century. Despite this, on the eve of the COVID-19 pandemic, significant development gaps persisted, income convergence with advanced economies was slowing, and some vulnerabilities were rising.

World Development Report 2023

World Development Report 2023: Migrants, Refugees, and Societies

World Development Report 2023 proposes an innovative approach to maximize the development impacts of cross-border movements on both destination and origin countries and on migrants and refugees themselves. The framework it offers, drawn from labor economics and international law, rests on a Match and Motive Matrix that focuses on two factors: how closely migrants skills and attributes match the needs of destination countries and what motives underlie their movements.

Women Business and the Law 2023

Women, Business and the Law 2023 is the ninth in a series of annual studies measuring the laws and regulations that affect womens economic opportunity in 190 economies. It identifies barriers to womens economic participation and encourages reform of discriminatory laws. This year, the study also includes research, a literature review, and analysis of 53 years of reforms for womens rights and makes an important contribution to research and policy discussions about the state of womens economic empowerment.


Open Knowledge Repository

Select works from over 30,000 World Bank publications

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    The Government Analytics Handbook presents frontier evidence and practitioner insights on how to leverage data to strengthen public administration. Covering a range of microdata sourcessuch as administrative data and public servant surveysas well as tools and resources for undertaking the analytics, it transforms the ability of governments to take a data-informed approach to diagnose and improve how public organizations work.

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    Climate change is unfolding amid the greatest information and communication revolution in human history. From e-commerce and social media to smart manufacturing and precision farming, digital technologies have become prevalent in all aspects of economic and social life. Digital technologies also have the potential to shape climate change action. Green digital transformation can help countries adapt effectively to the impacts of climate change and create greener growth pathways.

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    This report, the first in the series, aims to inform evidence-based policies targeted at tackling the growing digital divide. Advanced countries integrate generative AI into their products and services, while less than half of the businesses in many low- and middle-income countries have internet connections. By compiling, curating, and analyzing data from diverse sources, it presents a comprehensive picture of digitalization worldwide, bringing attention to successful practices as well as areas where efforts will need to be redoubled.

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    "Land Policies for Resilient and Equitable Growth in Africa" draws on a wealth of data, examples, and studies from Africa and beyond to show that regulatory and institutional reforms can harness this potential by improving quality, coverage, usefulness, and sustainability of documented land rights.

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    The Business of the State uses new evidence covering 91 countries from the World Banks Global Businesses of the State database to highlight the distinction between businesses of the state and traditionally understood state-owned enterprises. The report analyzes how different ownership arrangements across sectors and institutional settings affect private investment, productivity, technology adoption, and job creation. It also analyzes how these government arrangements influence the ability of economies to respond to shocks, from pandemics to climate change.

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    Research on migration and urban development in Africa has primarily focused on larger cities and rural-to-urban migration. However, 97 percent of Africas urban centers have fewer than 300,000 inhabitants, and a sizable share of urban migrants come from other urban areas. A more holistic and dynamic perspective, incorporating migration flows along the full urban hierarchy, as well as urban-urban migrants, is needed to better understand and leverage migration for urban development.

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